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Thursday, April 23, 2009

Gračanica


Gračanica is a town and a municipality in northeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina, located east of Doboj and west of Tuzla
Gracanica is located in the lower valley of the River Spreca along the main road from Tuzla to Doboj, about 50km west of Tuzla.
The Gračanica municipality is currently the home of about 55,000 people. Villages around the town are: Piskavica, Škahovica, Soko, Vranovići, Doborovci, Malešići, Lukavica, Džakule, Prijeko Brdo, Trnovci, Stjepan Polje, Pribava, Donja Lohinja, Gornja Lohinja, Donja Orahovica, Gornja Orahovica, Rašljeva, Miričina.The Gračanica municipality covers 219 square kilometers.

History
First writings about Gračanica were found in Turkish archives from year 1528, in which time Gračanica was known by its iron mine. Some 4 km (2.5 mi) away from the town was a middle age fortress named Sokol. Gračanica got the status of a town in 1548. It grew bigger during the XVII century, with the help of Ahmed-paša Budimlija, who built the White Mosque, a public bath and a clock tower. Through the time of Austrian Empire,Gračanica experienced huge economic,urban and culture development.
In 2005, almost entire population of the municipality (100%) was composed of ethnic Bosniaks
http://www.opcina-gracanica.ba/




Zavidovići


Zavidovići is a town and municipality in central Bosnia and Herzegovina, located between Doboj and Zenica on the confluence of rivers Bosna, Krivaja and Gostović. It sits in a valley surrounded by many mountains of which the largest is Klek. It is administratively part of the Zenica-Doboj Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
About Zavidovići
Zavidovići is a young town that was established at the end of 19 century. The town is famous for big industrial collective for refinement of wood "Krivaja" and this is why this town's nickname is "Wood town". Zavidovići is located in the basin of three rivers: Bosna, Krivaja and Gostović.
In 2005, 97% of population of the municipality were ethnic Bosniaks.
History
Zavidovići was developed by the Austrians during the Austro-Hungarian reign in BiH, mostly because of the wood industry. After the World War II, the wood industry in Zavidovići, the company named by one of the rivers "Krivaja" (founded 1884), expanded. The company focused on furniture manufacturing, which it began to export to US under a name "Krivaja Beechbrook". Due to the Bosnian war, the former giant and the town are left with almost nothing.
Famous people
Safet Sušić - Bosnian footballer and current coach, played in two world cups
Venio Losert - Croatian handballer and two-time Olympic gold-medallist
Suad Mujić - Bosnian basketballer and current coach, played over 1000 games
Asim Bajramovic - Published Bosnian song writer
http://www.zavidovici.ba/

Monday, April 20, 2009

Tešanj


Tešanj is a city and municipality in the northern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina, located near Teslić, Doboj and Zavidovići. It is administratively part of the Zenica-Doboj Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
About Tešanj:
Tešanj is located between highlands, besides the river Tešanjka, on the 230m altitudes. The name Tešanj is mentioned first in 1461 in the monument, which the King Stjepan Tomašević gifted to its uncle Radivoj Krstić and also "On Usora is town Tešanj".
Mosque Ferhadija was build around 1564 by Ferhad-beg, son of Skenderov.
History:
The uncle of King Stjepan Tomasevic, Radoje Krstic, was given the town of Tesanj by his nephew in 1461. Tesanj became the seat of the kingdom where the noble Krstic family lived and reigned until 1476.
Then, the Ottomans dethroned everyone, and Tesanj was no exception. The main Ottoman figure in the early days of Tesanj's new rule was Gazi Ferhad bey. His most significant contribution was the building of the Ferhadija Mosque, which still stands in the old town and dates back to the 15th century. Gazi Ferhad-begov cemetery Gazi Ferhad-beg, who was the builder and fonder of the mosque, died in 1568 and was buried in the yard of the mosque. He was charitable and most responsible for development of the town Tešanj. His grave was written in Arabian language, which is still the oldest Islamic record in Tešanj.
The old Eminagic House is the oldest house in Tesanj, and is said to have been built at the end of the 17th century.
The old town is dominated by the well-preserved fortress that overlooks the whole city. Upper City Center expands around the castle, rather on the bottom of this castle. Very early this castle became a center of economic and cultural life of Tešanj. This was developed along with retail and trade in Tešanj. The city center developed strongly in 17 and 18 Century, when there were around 40 stores and trades operating.
The Hour tower was built in the 17th century. From the total of 21 hour towers that were build in the whole Bosnia and Herzegovina, this tower is one of the four towers that are still working properly. It is 18.5 meters tall. Up until 1890 this tower showed alaturk time, but the same year, Fehim-beg Smailbegović brought a new clock, which showed European time. This hour clock is still working.
Grave of the poet Musa Ćazim Ćatić is located on cemetery "Obješenica", in the city center. Even though he was born in Odžak in year 1880, he dedicated his whole life and work to the city Tešanj, where is also died in 1915.
Tešanj Castle:
Slideshow must see:

Sunday, April 12, 2009

Kalesija


History:
The Byzantine travel writer Jovan Kin (1150 -1165) in his travelogues noted the possibility of Muslim tribes Halisije or Kalisije having settled down in the valley of Spreča river. During the Turkish period the mosques in Vukovije, Gojčin, ©eher, Hajvazi, Kalesija Gornja, Miljanovci, Seljublje and Rainci as well as orthodox church in the village of Dubnica had been built.

The arrival of Austro-Hungarians brought significant changes mainly through the intensive industrial development supported by construction of narrow gauge railways, roads and opening of ore mines; in 1906 first elementary school was established in Kalesija and macadam road Tuzla- Zvornik, passing through Kalesiija and Poľarnica was constructed. The construction of the railway Tuzla - Zvornik was started before the WWI and interrupted several times due to warfare, finished just before the outburst of 92-95 BiH war. Although the authentic and objective history of 92-95 BiH war has not been written, it is certain that Kalesija was the first place in BiH liberated on 23 May 1992, after 12 days of occupation. After the war, new era in development of Kalesija has started with visible results in all fields.The most remarkable religious buildings from the Turkish period are Atic mosque built some 400 years ago, old mosques in Hemlijasi and Lipovica, on the so called " Pasha Road" and Orthodox church in Dubnica, built in 16th century. However the oldest cultural monuments in the area of Kalesija are the medieval tombstones called stecci, from 14th and 15 th century. Collection of more than a hundred is dotted on several sites all over the region, with various symbols and ornaments carved in stone. Also, there are remains of medieval forts on several locations: Gojčino, Zolje - Jajići, and below Pjeąavica.

Geographical Settlement:

Municipality of Kalesija is situated in the northeastern BiH on the middle of the road Tuzla-Zvornik, in the valley of lower flow of the river Spreča, on the southern slopes of Majevica Mountain and northern slopes of Javornik. The average altitude is of 270 m, with mild continental climate and average annual temperature of 10 C.

The seat of the municipality is a small town of Kalesija, surrounded by fertile fields and forested hills of both broad and coniferous woods. The municipality covers the area of 201 sq km, mainly under the fertile agricultural land in the valleys of rivers Spreča, Mala Spreča, Gribaja, Bukovica and Dubnica, and remaining part under pastures and orchards, as well as oak, beech, white and dark pine and spruce woods.
Link to slideshow must see:

Wednesday, April 8, 2009

Banovici


History:

The town of Banovici was named after the epitaph on the stecak of Boľićko Banovic, medieval tombstone located in the village close to the town. The stecak has the form of sarcophagi, with the stone basement size 2,20 x 0,90 x 0,70 m , and besides the flower decoration carved on the front side it bears following epitaph written in mediaeval Bosnian Cyrillic script: "Here lies Boľićko Banovic, in his own land, noble Drameąina, and gravestone was erected by Hlapac and Obodin and Branko with his brothers."Other material remains from ancient times have also been found in Banovici, such as coins assumed to origin from the Roman period. Establishment and development of modern municipality and town of Banovici is determined by the exploitation of quality brown coal deposits that remained among important energy resources. Banovici is among most important centers of mining and industry in BiH, with excelenet results achieved in the coal exploitation. The municipality of Banovici covers the area of 183 km2, on the northwest foothills of Konjuh Mountain, in the south and southeast flow of the river Spreča, in the depression south of the Spreča river valley. It is situated at the 44°20' geographic latitude and 18°31" geographic longitude. This is the area of natural beauty, surrounded by the deep forests and in addition, town has more than 13 Ha of green surfaces. The municipality consists of a number of settlements and villages, 19 settlements and 74 small villages, out of which most important being: Oskova, Repnik, Trestenica, Grivice and Omazići. Central position belongs to the relatively new settlement, town of Banovici, located on the banks of the river Litva and lower flow of its tributaries Radina and Draganja, with average height above the sea level of 320-360 meters. The railway Brčko-Banovići built in 1946, connected Banovici with the highway Beograd -Zagreb, and through Doboj, with other normal gauge railways in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The municipality of Banovici is a part of Tuzla Canton, some 30 km away from Tuzla. The town of Banovici, as the center of municipality, has developed all institutions for social, cultural and administrative affairs.

Infrastructure:

The main road connecting two big industrial centers and two respective cantons, Tuzla and Zenica, runs through the Banovici municipality. The municipality borders with Lukavac,®ivinice, Kladanj, Olovo and Zavidovici. The town is 36 km away from Tuzla and 100 km away from Sarajevo. The railway track leads from Banovici to Brcko and further on to railway network of BiH. The economy of Banovici municipality is based on and determined by the coal mining and exploitation. According to current data, there are 5.806 employees and 4.280 unemployed persons.
Slide show of City must see:


Kladanj


Kladanj is a town and municipality in Tuzla Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina. It belongs to the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Kladanj is located on the Tuzla to Sarajevo road along the River Drinjaca, at the base of Konjuh Mountain.
History:
The first mention of the town of Kladanj dates back to 12 century, precisely to 1138.
First record of Kladanj in Turkish sources is from 1469, referring to the maket place Cetvrtkoviste where on Thursdays big fairs were held. In the period of Ottoman rule, Kladanj was mentioned in 1557, as the settlement (kasaba) within the Sarajevo kadiluk (territoral unit) that would further on become kadiluk itself with Olovo as its part.

The land area of the municipality is approximately 325 km2 (125 sq mi). The town is 570 meters above sea level.

The lumber industry called "Sokolina" is one of the most vital economic contibutors to the municipality.
http://kladanj.17.forumer.com/

Tuesday, April 7, 2009

Ključ


Ključ is a town and municipality by the same name in western Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, specifically the Una-Sana Canton. The name of the town and the municipality translates to "Key" in Serbian / Bosnian.

It is located a short distance south from Sanski Most. The Sana River runs through the municipality. The terrain is heavily forested.

The area is connected to other parts of Bosnia by the M-5 highway. Forestry, light industry and tourism are major components of the economy.

Human settlements have existed in the area before the Roman time. The town itself is first mentioned in 1322 in the documents of ban Stjepan II Kotromanić. It was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1463 as the last forteress of Bosnian rulers.[citation needed] After Dayton agreement, the pre-war municipality was divided between Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska.

Sunday, April 5, 2009

Travnik


Travnik (Cyrillic: Травник) is a city and municipality in central Bosnia and Herzegovina, 90 km west of Sarajevo. It is the capital of the Central Bosnia Canton, and is located in the Travnik Municipality. Travnik today has some 27,000 residents, with a metro (municipality) population that is probably close to 70,000 people. It is famous for being the capital city of the governors of Bosnia from 1686 to 1850, and its cultural heritage dating from that period.
Travnik is located near the geographic center of Bosnia and Herzegovina at 44°14′N 17°40′E / 44.233°N 17.667°E / 44.233; 17.667. The river Lašva passes through the city, flowing from west to east before joining the Bosna. Travnik itself is built in the large Lašva river valley, which connects the Bosna river valley in the east with the Vrbas river valley in the west.
Travnik is found 514 meters above sea level. Its most distinguishing geographic feature are its mountains, Vilenica and Vlašić. Vlašić, named after the Vlachs, is one of the tallest mountains in the country at 1933 meters (6342 ft).
History:
Although there is evidence of some settlement in the region dating back to the Bronze Age, the true history of Travnik begins during the first few centuries AD. Dating from this time there are numerous indications of Roman settlement in the region, including graves, forts, the remains of various other structures, early Christian basilicas, etc. etc. In the city itself, Roman coins and plaques have been found. Some writing found indicates the settlement is closely connected to the known Roman colony in modern day Zenica, 30 km (19 mi) away.
In the Middle Ages the Travnik area is known as the župa Lašva province of the medieval Bosnian kingdom. The area is first mentioned by Bela IV of Hungary in 1244. Travnik itself was one of a number of fortified towns in the region, with its fortress Kaštel becoming today's old town sector. The city itself is first mentioned by the Ottomans during their conquest of nearby Jajce.
After the Ottoman conquest of Bosnia, much of the local Croatian Catholic population converted to Islam. The city quickly grew into one of the more important settlements in the region, as authorities constructed mosques, marketplaces, and various infrastructure. During 1699 when Sarajevo was set afire by soldiers of Field-Marshall Prince Eugene of Savoy, Travnik became the capital of the Ottoman province of Bosnia and residence of the Bosnian viziers. The city became an important center of government in the whole Western frontier of the empire, and consulates were established by the governments of France and Austria-Hungary.
The period of Austrian occupation brought westernization and industry to Travnik, but also a reduction of importance. While cities such as Banja Luka, Sarajevo, Tuzla, and Zenica grew rapidly, Travnik changed so little that during 1991 it had a mere 30,000 or so people, with 70,000 in the entire municipality.
During the Bosnian War, the town mostly escaped damage from conflict with Serbian forces, but the area experienced fighting between local Bosniak and Croat factions before the Washington Agreement was signed. After the war, Travnik was made the capital of the Central Bosnia Canton.
Tourism:
Like many Bosnian towns, Travnik's tourism is based largely on its history and geography. Nearby Mt.Vlašić is one of the tallest peaks in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and an excellent spot for skiing, hiking, and sledding. Though tourism isn't very strong for the city, Vlašić is probably its chief tourist attraction. The city itself is also of interest. Numerous structures dating to the Ottoman era have survived in near perfect conditions, such as numerous mosques, oriental homes, two clock towers (it is the only city in Bosnia and Herzegovina to have two clock towers), and fountains. The city's old town dates back to the early 15th century, making it one of the most popular widely accessible sites from that time.

Cazin




Cazin is a town and municipality in northwest Bosnia and Herzegovina, near the border with Croatia. It is located in the Una-Sana Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Cazinska Krajina is named after Cazin. The city of Cazin is located on the main road which connects Bihać and Velika Kladuša.
Today, it is estimated that the municipality of Cazin has 72,000 residents with a clear Bosniak majority. In 2005, almost all inhabitants of the municipality (100%) were ethnic Bosniaks.


Histouy:


Cazin has several historic places, some dating back to the 14th century. Ostrožac castle and Radetina Tower are located in Cazin. The city was successfully defended by the Bosnian (Bosnian Muslim) Army during the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina.


Saturday, April 4, 2009

Lukavac





Lukavac is a town and municipality in northcentral Bosnia and Herzegovina. The town is the seat of a municipality within the Tuzla Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.It is also an industrial town.There are lot of factories like Ssishecam soda Lukavac (soda) and factory of cement that is called FCL.

The remains of Bronze Age culture found in the locality of Gradina Hill on Ozren Mountain as well as archeological excavation and findings from the Copper Age in the locality of Bokavići, the village mentioned back in the records from 1512, points to the fact that the area of today's Lukavac municipality was inhabited even during the prehistoric times.


The name Lukavac, that can also be found in other parts of our country, is mentioned in the written documents from 1528 as Gornji and Donji Lukavac, while census from 1885 recorded Lukavac Srpski(Serbian) and Lukavac Turski (Turkish). Out of several versions related to the origin of the name Lukavac, the most reliable is one that links the name of the place to the local term for arch-shaped valley or flat land at the river curve.


However, the most important factor for the development of modern Lukavac was establishment of Sodium Factory. The location for the First Bosnian Factory of the Ammoniac Sodium and its related settlement by the end of last century had been knowingly determined: along the right bank of the Spreča river, down to the mouth of Jala river, in the mid-way between railway stations of Puračić and Bistarac on the newly built railway Doboj-Simin Han, on the left side of the Tuzla-Doboj main road, below the existing settlement of Lukavac Turski. Soon, from the small factory community, Lukavac developed into the industrial settlement with all necessary urban and public utility infrastructure. At this early stage, its urban development was based on three separate construction sites: northwest section near the Factory, down the river Spreča, mainly for the workers; then the southeastern part in Tuzla direction, with big houses and comfortable apartment buildings with flower gardens and backyards with hot water, mainly for higher officials and top managers of the factory, and northeastern part, along the road Tuzla-Doboj with housing units for craftsmen and factory staff. Development of workers self-government system within the Coke and Chemical Conglomerate, Lukavac Mine and other working organizations, followed by development and improvement of public utility, enabled and ensured favorable conditions for faster and successful changes in the town development. Through the decisions of the workers councils on one hand and municipal assembly on the other hand, development of the town of Lukavac was directed on new foundations and instead of development of separated urban parts and divided society, it has developed in functional and integrative town of working people and citizens from all over former Yugoslavia with population of some 15.000 inhabitants.




Gradačac




Gradačac (Cyrillic: Градачац) is a town and municipality in the northeastern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina, located roughly 40 km (25 mi) south of the Sava river. Administratively, Gradačac is part of the Tuzla Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The towns of Bosanski Šamac and Modriča lie near Gradačac.
History:
The župa of Gradačac was first mentioned in 1302, while the town's first written mention dates from 1465 (also as Gračac). The town became part of the Ottoman Empire in 1512, its nahija (municipality) was first recorded in the defter of 1533, while its kadiluk (county) was recorded in 1634.
In 1701 the settlement was given the status of a palanka (city), and it became the headquarters of a military captaincy in 1710. The captains of the Gradaščević family led the development of the city, and the most famous of them, Husein-kapetan Gradaščević or Zmaj od Bosne ("Dragon of Bosnia"), led an uprising that raised to arms most of the Bosnian captains in 1831.
The town has a fort with 18-meter high walls built between 1765 and 1821, and a 22-meter high watchtower, built in 1824 by Husein-kapetan Gradaščević on foundations made originally by the Romans.


It was severely bombed during the Bosnian war 1992-1995. It is located at the narrow northern corridor that connects two major portions of the Bosnian Serb entity Republika Srpska, near Brčko. Gradačac became part of the Tuzla Canton in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina after the war.


In 2005, 96% of population of the municipality were ethnic Bosniaks.


Friday, April 3, 2009

Srebrenik


Srebrenik is a town and municipality in northeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is administratively part of the Tuzla Canton and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The town of Srebrenik is located northwest of Tuzla.
History:

Otherwise, Bosnia's best-preserved medieval castle dating from 1333 is located in the outskirts of Srebrenik. The castle was occupied by the Ban of Bosnia Stjepan Kotromanić until his death in 1353.

There are two historical versions related to the Ottoman conquest of Srebrenik. According to one, Srebrenik was taken in 1512, together with Teocak. The other version says that Srebrenik was taken together with Sokol and Tesanj in 1521 by the Bosnian sanjak bey Feriz. Although there are no precise data, it can be assumed that the Srebrenik old town and its fortress were built during the Hungarian rule over Bosnia, while some parts, such as a mosque were added by the Ottomans.

Current:

Nowadays, the population of Srebrenik is not clear since no official census has been conducted after 1991. However, it is certain that during the 1990s and particularly during the Bosnian war, the municipality of Srebrenik received approximately 13,000 Bosniak war refugees from primarily the municipalities of Doboj, to the west, and Brčko, to the north of Srebrenik.
On the other hand, some of the Serb residents left the area since Srebrenik became chiefly populated by Bosniaks. In early 1996, when the Bosnian war ended, most of the remaining Serb residents of Srebrenik left because Srebrenik became administratively part of the Tuzla Canton and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Therefore, today it is safe to assume that the municipality of Srebrenik has a population of approximately 49,000 (est.) residents with an evident majority of Bosniaks along with a small minority of primarily Croats.
In 2005, 97% of population of the municipality were ethnic Bosniaks.
Sport:

The football club of Srebrenik is called NK Gradina.

Thursday, April 2, 2009

Zenica




Zenica (Cyrillic: Зеница) is an industrial city in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is the capital of the Zenica-Doboj Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entity. Zenica is located about 70 km (43 mi) north of Sarajevo and is situated on the Bosna river, surrounded by mountains and hills.
The town's Stara čaršija (old quarter) contains several attractions, including a synagogue, which was the City Museum and Art Gallery. There is also a mosque (Čaršijska Džamija), an Austrian fountain and an old bey's farm house (Hadžimazića Kuća). Today Fatih Sultan Mehmed Barracks of the Turkish Armed Forces is also based in Zenica within the peace-keeping activities of European forces in the country.
History:
The urban part of today's Zenica was formed during several specific periods which can be chronologically dated to the time of Neolithic community, Illyrian old towns ruins, Roman Municipium Bistua Nova, and the most important archaeological find, an II to IV century AD, Early Christian double Basilica; there is only one more like it identified so far in the whole of Europe. Ruins of an ancient settlement were found not far from Bilimišće (part of the town on the south side) by the villages of Putovici and Tišina, with objects like Villa Rustica, baths, Pagan temples and a variety of different structures which dominated the scenery of the environment.
The age of independence of the medieval Bosnian Kingdom is directly connected with Zenica, above all with the stone table of the Grand Magistrate Gradiša and the rule of Bosnia by Ban Kulin (Governor) in the second half of the XII century. An Act of Abjuration was sign in Bilino Polje (where the city's football stadium is today) by Kulin with the representatives of the Pope, and that action symbolized the end of an era. The Act determines the facts of the political powers of that time. The closeness to the stony fortress of Vranduk, then to the residence of the Kings of Bosnia at Bobovac and to the village Janjici where the Did, the High Priest of the Bosnian Church use to preside along with its Stecaks (type of a medieval tombstone founded only on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina and some parts of Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia) in the villages of Puhovac and Pojske and the local population with its clerks, writers and builders of that time, who had left their own mark in history, points to the facts and gives evidence of the special significance of this region in the Middle Ages. By its old names Bistua Nova, Bilino Polje (Bilin's Field), Brod and finally Zenica from the 20th of March 1436 this town has remained connected to the central parts of the Bosnian State and stands in the middle of the river Bosna's flow.
Zenica is the place of origin of the Serbian House of Petrovic dynasty that migrated in the 14th century to Herzegovina and would rule Montenegro for over two centuries.
During the rule of the Ottoman Empire (1463-1878) and by the fact that the changes to the main trade road had reorganized the function of the town, except during a brief period until 1557, when Zenica was the residence of Brod's Kadi (Ottoman judge, handles both religious and secular affairs of his subjects), Zenica was a small town with its own individual look and several mosques: Sultan Ahmet's, Osman Cheleby's, Seymen and Jali mosques, with a Madrassa (Islamic religious school), founded in 1737 and several lower primary schools, with interesting Ottoman tombstones, gardens, inns and several stopping inns for caravans. In one description from the year 1697, Zenica is mentioned as a delta of Nile, where melons grow and where the entire landscape is very pleasant. It is assumed that Zenica had 2.000 inhabitants at that time and all were mostly Bosniacs, while Serbs and Croats are mentioned in the documents at the end of XVIII century and in the XIX century Jews are also mentioned.

Zenica, for many of its characteristics and features, is a specific urban and economic area. Its peculiarities originate from both its geographic location, since it is situated in the very center of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the economic and social character of its development.
Zenica is situated in one of the largest and most beautiful valleys in the middle part of the River Bosna by which the state has got its name. The River Bosna well is in Ilidža near Sarajevo and its mouth into the River Sava near Bosanski Šamac, which make it a natural north south corridor. The Zenica valley itself is stretching from Lasva canyon in the south, to Vranduk canyon to the north.

Location of Zenica:


The main rail and road communications pass through the River Bosna valley. Sarajevo and Tuzla airports are not far away from the region. With comparatively good roads (for the present Bosnian-Herzegovian circumstances), and standard gauge railway roads (with two tracks from Doboj to Zenica), Zenica is well connected to the north, west and east of the country. What is particularly important for its economic development is the access to sea via rail and roads. European corridor of the future north-south highway also passes through Zenica.